The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) is the largest social protection programme in the world that provides 100 days of unskilled wage employment to any household residing in rural areas whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work. Compose the literature review. Compare this with the mobilization during the last three years in favor of farmers demanding higher minimum support prices, loan waivers, input subsidy increases and direct income transfers. The details on local politics and its interaction with NREGA are not only interesting insights into the functioning of panchayats but also bring out the fissure points inherent in local political structures. NREGA is a ‘green’ and. Politics and the Right to Work: India's National Rural Employment Guarantee Act. Although it started as voluntary, over the years, it has been linked with various programs and has now expanded to cover the entire country. Politics, especially the one that prioritizes rights, is not always peaceful and cannot be controlled only through good governance. Although it started as voluntary, over the years, it has been linked with various programs and has now expanded to cover the entire country. Not only did the mobilization gain political visibility of declining farmer incomes, it also succeeded in getting Rs. Works And Their Impacts A Rapid Assessment in Maharashtra. The. Two areas of policy concern derive from this analysis. 5A simple comparison with another landmark act, The National Food Security Act (NFSA), which had the same set of actors (except the Left), is an effective illustration of the Left’s role in NREGA. OpenEdition member – Published with Lodel – Administration only, You will be redirected to OpenEdition Search, South Asia Multidisciplinary Academic Journal, Politics and the Right to Work: India's National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, The act was subsequently renamed as Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA, The act lays down guidelines on the distribution of funds between material consumed and wages paid, The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA), is a unique legislation not just in India but also among developing countries for the simple reason that no other developed, nor developing, country has enacted a right to employment. A literature review summarizes and synthesizes the existing scholarly research on a particular topic. Reviewing the research literature means finding, reading, and summarizing the published research relevant to your question. ‘decent work’. Similarly, there is a goodness of fit between NREGA and satisfaction with NREGA because the, calculated value (2) is less than the table value (3.841).The alternative hypothesis is to be rejected and the, calculated value (18) is greater than that of the table v, Similarly, there is no goodness of fit between NREGA and satisfaction as calculated value (2) is less than, that of table value (3.841) .The alternative hypothesis is to be rejected and there is an acceptance w, calculated value ( 3.8) is less than that of table value ( 9.488) .The alternative hypothesis is to be rej, calculated value (2) is less than that of the table value (3.841).The alternative hypothesis is to be rejected, There is a goodness of fit between NREGA a, NREGA as calculated value (21.6) is greater than that of table value (9.488). While there is a vast literature examining the efficiency and efficacy of an intervention such as the NREGA, this book is certainly unique in exploring the politics rather than the functioning of the Act. Thus NREGA covers the entire country with the exception of districts that have a hundred percent urban population. Even at the time of severe economic slowdown, with unemployment at the highest level in decades and real wages declining, there is hardly any political mobilization in favor of using NREGA to raise rural incomes. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. That is actually a good sign. The story of Rajasthan is particularly interesting given that it was the state where much of the movement for NREGA originated. In simple terms, it guarantees 100 days per year of paid work, on demand and as a manual laborer, to every adult resident of rural areas. L.J Chaarlas, J.M Velmurugan in their study ‘Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment, Guarantee Act, 2005(MGNREGA): Issues and Cha, Government must critically study the impac, poverty scheme is not mitigated from its initial or exact or actual path. If you have purchased a print title that contains … Moreover, there is no doubt that NREGA helped increase female participation in paid work and empowerment, yet it has hardly been a rallying point for civil society organizations working on women’s empowerment. Act (MGNREGA) and Women Empowerment, May 2016 reveals that. NREGA has successfully drawn women, scheduled castes and other marginalized communities into the scheme, while helping to raise wages in rural areas. T / F A literature review should refer to all key literature in your field of study. Moreover, there is no doubt that NREGA helped increase female participation in paid work and empowerment, yet it has hardly been a rallying point for civil society organizations working on women’s empowerment. The third feature is government mandated minimum wages recognized as the largest contributor to poverty alleviation, directly as well as indirectly. The authors underplay the role of leftist parties that were part of the UPA government of 2004-2009. The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India NREGASoft V1.5. The study was carried out during 2012-13. The null hypothesis is to be rejected and ther, NREGA and satisfaction with NREGA because the, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, Chennai (2009). Share. Even at the time of severe economic slowdown, with unemployment at the highest level in decades and real wages declining, there is hardly any political mobilization in favor of using NREGA to raise rural incomes. Village level interactions did have the effect of consolidating interest groups leading to perverse outcomes such as the denial of NREGA benefits to political opponents. It also endeavours to forward a few recommendations for policy makers for enhancing and improving the implementation of the said scheme. Every research report/ thesis/research article begins with an introduction to the topic of research. Even the strongest critics of NREGA among economists are now crying for more funds to be allocated for NGREGA. While there are no simple answers to most of these complex questions, this book is certainly a primer for those interested in trying to understand the complexity of development politics in a country like India. The fact that the beneficiaries of NREGA failed to build alliances between workers and farmers even when the minimum wages were reduced to almost half of market wages is a clear pointer of the lack of support NREGA has from other sections of rural economy. What makes NREGA different from such interventions is the inclusive right-based approach backed by legislation. Literature review could be a part of a dissertation or research article and a stand-alone literature review. Issue 4 2018. In simple terms, it guarantees 100 days per year of paid work, on demand and as a manual laborer, to every adult resident of rural areas. Category: Library and Information Science. However, unlike research papers, which establish new arguments and make original contributions, literature reviews organize and present existing research. The authors also miss out on highlighting the role of the “food for work” program which was implemented after massive mobilization and campaign by the left and other political parties. 2009. This chapter is similar to what is called the list of references and its main purpose is to collect all the relevant sources of information and organize them in a logical sequence. Large variations in child poverty rates across provinces are found and most of South Africa's poor children live in rural areas. It provides more detailed information about studies already referred to briefly in the introduction to your FYP. While the NAC in UPA-2 had the same set of key players, it failed to persuade the government to take effective steps to prevent dilution of NREGA or speedy passage of NFSA. Our samples not only help you with the structure, but they also serve as a literature review sample outline. While the APA Publication Manual does not require a specific order for a literature review, a good literature review typically contains the following components: 1. Both NREGA and MGNREGA are used interchangeably in this review. The story of Rajasthan is particularly interesting given that it was the state where much of the movement for NREGA originated. Issue 2 2018. At a time when inequality is rising in developing as well as developed countries, there is a rising demand for policies to reduce inequalities. The. For many, economists in particular, it represents an attempt to enshrine social security in a rights-based discourse: NREGA is seen as an attempt to recognize and legislate a full-fledged right to work. That is, unlike in previous such schemes, there are no exclusion criteria and every rural adult is entitled to participation in NREGA. The dilution of the basic features of NREGA after 2011-12 is surprising. For example, the literature review in this paper will show: • Performance measurement (as promoted in the literature and practised in leading companies) refers to the use of a multi-dimensional set of performance measures. While individuals played a role, they are limited in function to what ruling party/parties allow; in effect also a characteristic of the political ideology and orientation of the political party. There is no denying that the scheme is outstanding in its vision, but due to certain loopholes, it has been partially successful in achieving its goal of eradicating poverty. THE MGNREGA: AT A GLANCE Adult members of a rural household, These two threads effectively bind all the chapters together into a new perspective on the politics of welfare versus the politics of redistribution. 14Right at the outset of the book, the authors clearly lay down six major hypotheses around three themes—evaluation of NREGA, debates on political economy in India and the comparative study of development politics. A well-written literature review should provide a critical appraisal of previous studies related to the current research area rather than a simple summary of prior works. All issues; Volume 32. The programmes like MGNREGA would create a positive impact on increasing the quantum and level of employment . Child poverty in South Africa is an issue with strong racial connotations. This same transformative potential however, is also what attracts backlash against NREGA, the issue being whether the politics of governance is sufficient to ensure that it also leads to politics of contestation generating broader mobilization against the deep rooted structures of inequality. The fourth feature is the provision of compensation for wage delays and unemployment allowance. Arts/Literature; Book Review; NREGA: An Answer to the Economic Slowdown in India — by Anognya P — September 10, 2019. Literature reviews for dissertation/research article. NREGA was enacted in August 2005. An empirical research report written in American Psychological Association (APA) style always includes a written literature review, but it is important to review the literature early in the research process for several reasons. The Literature Review chapter provides a detailed review, discussion and comment on published work that contributes to your own study. (MGNREGA) and Women Empowerment. The answer to this puzzle may partly lie in the nature of the rural political economy. Literature reviews are a collection of the most relevant and significant publications regarding that topic in order to provide a comprehensive look at what has been said on the topic and by whom. Agricultural incomes have increased across the country, in which the impact of … The literature review is an important part of every research project. (local village council) in deciding the nature of the works to be taken up (tanks, roads, water conservation, drainage and so on) which did not work as expected due to the diminishing functionality of village councils and the failure of efforts to revive it. In a subsequent reference, you would cite the name of the first author listed followed by et al. Second, agriculture appears to be more of a survival strategy than part of a poverty exit strategy. A major question then is why there were no counter mobilizations to prevent these changes if the program was successful in effecting a fundamental transformation in how social protection initiatives are implemented. India is one of the several fast growing economies of the world. Both Kudumbashree and MGNREGA have been implemented in this area for the upliftment of this population especially women. If a work has three, four, or five authors, you should cite all of the authors by last name in the first in-text reference. accepted levels, to protect them from The question that really needs to be asked is what changed between these two moments, the first being when the NREGA was credited for re-election of the Congress party with increased majority in 2009, and the other in 2015 when NREGA was declared “a monument of failure.”. The results of the study revealed that 45.00 per cent of the respondents had moderate attitude towards MGNREGA programme. HOW TO CITE LITERATURE. In fact, one of the drawbacks of the book is that the time period covered in the analysis is only up to 2011-12 even though the book is published in 2017. The left played an important role not just in mobilizing opinion in favor of a national employment-guarantee act, but also insisted on this being the first priority in the National Common Minimum Program (NCMP). Mahatma Gandhi Employment Guarantee Act 2005 (or, NREGA No 42, later renamed as the "Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act" or MGNREGA), is an Indian labour law and social security measure that aims to guarantee the 'right to work'. Search. The null hypothesis is to be. Social protection is broadly understood as measures to reduce poverty and vulnerability by reducing people's exposure to risks and enhance their capacity to manage those risks, including those associated with unemployment, exclusion, sickness, disability, and old age.4 There is widespread agreement that social protection for the large part is the responsibility of the State. The book has eight chapters including the introductory first chapter. L.J Chaarlas, J.M Velmurugan, (2012). Literature Review Matrix As you read and evaluate your literature there are several different ways to organize your research. It is the farmer unions that agitated against NREGA and in some states even managed to get it suspended during peak agricultural seasons in part because farmers held NREGA responsible for rising costs of cultivation as labor wages increased alongside workers’ attempts to use NREGA as a bargaining chip. The book misses out on some of these changes most of which happened after 2010-12 immediately after the UPA government began its second term. It also had large support from regional parties, which were already implementing most of the provisions for NFSA. During this period, NREGA has emerged as a political strategy, uplifting millions of poor from poverty, however, during this same ten years NREGA failed to achieve some of its key objectives. The main aim is to reduce alleviating poverty, migration, limiting child labor. Your professor might ask you to write this kind of paper to demonstrate your familiarity with work in the field pertinent to the research you hope to conduct. The overall socio economic impact before MGNREGA was found to be 56.92 per cent and 74.35 per cent after the implementation of MGNREGA programme indicating an enhancement of 30.60 per cent. However, the strength of this feature has slowly diminished, first by the mandatory linking of NREGA job cards with bank accounts and then to Aadhar, registration. 90000 crores as cash transfer, almost one third higher than the allocation for NREGA. 20% on farm labor. 1The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA)1 is a unique legislation not just in India but also among developing countries for the simple reason that no other developed, nor developing, country has enacted a right to employment. Some of the issues discussed earlier are brought together in Chapter 6 where the authors provide details on the impact of NREGA on the public’s welfare. 11However, blaming the current regime led by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) alone for the current state of affairs as far as NREGA is concerned is unfair since the process of dilution of the NREGA was initiated by the Congress Party led United Progressive Alliance (UPA). 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